National Geographic features our newest glass frog

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New glass frog Hyalinobatrachium nouns, photo by Jaime Culebras.

A few days ago I wrote about the discovery of a new glass frog, Hyalinobatrachium nouns, in our Manduriacu Reserve. National Geographic now features this frog and its relative, H. mashpi, in a beautifully illustrated article. Highly recommended:

https://www.nationalgeographic.com/animals/article/two-new-species-of-glassfrog-discovered

Previously, Nat Geo also featured an article about an earlier glass frog discovery, Nymphargus manduriacu, in the same reserve:

https://www.nationalgeographic.com/animals/article/translucent-glass-frog-species-found-in-ecuador

Lou Jost., President, Fundacion EcoMinga

The town of Tulcan passes a law to protect our Dracula Reserve!

The mayor of Tulcan, Cristian Benavides Fuentes, has long been a supporter of our conservation work within his jurisdiction. He’s visited our Dracula Reserve (which is partly in the Tulcan township) and often speaks about it to the public, emphasizing its uniqueness and the many new species found there. He has helped make the people of Tulcan proud of its natural heritage. We are sure that the residents of Tulcan, and their children, and their children’s children, will always be grateful for the visionary Tulcan leaders who made the decision to protect nature.

Congratulations to our excellent Dracula team, especially our director Javier Robayo, Gabriela Puetate, and Geovana Robayo.

The new municipal ordinance gives an important additional layer of legal protection to the Dracula Reserve, especially against mining. The new ordinance, which was passed unanimously by the Tulcan city council, is quite an achievement considering the level of anti-conservation pressure and disinformation fomented by the mining companies in the area. We are very proud of our team, and also proud of our scientific collaborators, who have been  active in raising local awareness about the new species they have discovered. For example, they named the orchid Lepanthes tulcanensis for the town, and they had a public contest to name the new frog Hyloscirtus conciencia.

We are currently working on new conservation awareness projects with the town government, and we look forward to more collaborations in the future. This is how conservation should be done, hand in hand with all the stakeholders. We have also achieved this in our Banos-area reserves, which are inside an area designated for sustainable development and conservation by the municipal governments there.

Lou Jost, President, Fundacion EcoMinga

 

Our Executive Director Javier Robayo selected as one of the Explorers Club’s “50 people changing the world”

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Javier Robayo. Photo: Callie Broaddus

Last week the Explorers Club chose our hard-working Executive Director Javier Robayo as one of the 50 most important new voices for the earth. He is one of only five South American conservationists to be recognised by this award this year. Javier’s nominator, Callie Broaddus of “Reserva: Youth Land Trust” (herself a winner of this award), wrote the following about Javier’s award:

“Robayo is the executive director of Fundación EcoMinga, a nonprofit which maintains over 27,000 acres of protected areas in Ecuador’s Chocó and Tropical Andes. As a biologist and educator, he has led more than 200 research and teaching expeditions in Ecuador. His extensive, collaborative field work has led to the discovery of more than 10 species of orchids, a new genus containing two species of rodents, and a new genus of frog, and five other species of amphibians. He shows respect and love for the earth by helping his park rangers and young researchers recognize and protect species in this biodiversity hotspot. Robayo’s work focuses on highlighting biodiversity to prevent the deforestation of these irreplaceable forests, which are severely threatened by agricultural deforestation and mining exploration.”

(See more of her article here.)

Javier explains his own work:

“Our mountains are full of endemic species and expressions of biodiversity in shapes and sizes never imagined, and exploration is endless. The petals, scales, feathers and sounds that fill our forests teach us about degrading habitats and their absence gives meaning to silence. My work involves creating private protected areas that provide habitat to Ecuador’s most threatened species, safeguarding areas of high biodiversity, and protecting clean water sources for the benefit of both wildlife and people. My commitment is to motivate local and indigenous people to join in scientific exploration and synchronize local mythology with natural history as we work together for the preservation of Ecuador’s biodiversity. My work in cloud forest conservation requires a constant exploration mindset. By leading fieldwork expeditions, I explore lands that are not yet studied, often uncovering completely new species. I also explore ways to engage local people in the value of scientific studies and how to employ them in conser-vation work on their ancestral lands. Our work can be stronger when we invite help from youth scientists and storytellers. Historically, conservation has been unsuccessful in areas where protectors of the forest were blind to the needs of the community. As much as we explore the land in a traditional sense, we must explore our community. We have the responsibility to take care of the forest while also bringing together funders, experts, young Ecuadorian researchers, lawyers, communicators, community members, and scientists in the country’s most remote places. By expanding the network of people who explore the forests together, we expand the definition of exploration itself.”

Pleurothalis thryssa? maybe more than one species?

Javier Robayo examining orchids. Photo: Callie Broaddus.

I first met Javier in the late 1990s after I gave a lecture at the university where he was a student. Later I got to know him better in his job as the tireless administrator of Fundacion Jocotoco’s southrn reserves in Ecuador. That foundation is focused on bird conservation, but Javier and I and one of the foundation’s trustees, Nigel Simpson, would explore the reserves to find interesting plants and sometimes discover new species. Javier not only loved plants but also knew how to deal with people in difficult situations; I particularly remember his bravery and success in confronting potentially dangerous squatters in the Rio Guajalito Reserve and convincing them to leave. Javier took his responsibilities very seriously and spent much oif his time racing hundreds of miles between reserves to stay on top of things throughout southern Ecuador.

Eventually Fundacion EcoMinga was founded, and when it grew large enough to require a dedicated administrator, I thought of Javier as the perfect person for the job. He accepted my invitation and left Fundacion Jocotoco. SInce then he has worked with amazing energy, and still spends much of his time racing around Ecuador to stay on top of the situations in each of our reserves. This is a grueling life that is difficult to sustain.  A few days ago Javier was in a car accident on his way to the Dracula Reserve, brought on by exhaustion. He received minor injuries. As he and our other staff continue to work to exhaustion, we hope to eventually grow our staff and delegate some of the work, but people like Javier are difficult to find.

Our partner the World Land Trust recognizes Javier’s award here.

Our partner Rainforest Trust had made Javier a conservation fellow a few years ago and made this video of him:

 

Congratulations Javier, and I hope to have the honor of working with you for many more years.

Lou Jost, President, Fundacon EcoMinga

New glass frog published today from our Manduriacu Reserve!

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Hyalinobatrachium nouns. Click to enlarge. Photo: Jaime Culebras.

[Traduccion en español abajo]

Western Ecuador is exceptionally rich in glass frogs, named because their underside is transparent and their internal organs are clearly visible. Today a group of herpetologists published the descriptions of two new species of glass frogs in the genus Hyalinobatrachium from western Ecuador. These are exceptionally beautiful frogs and the discoverers were very excited to have found them. One species, H. nouns, was found in our Manduriacu Reserve and nearby Los Cedros Reserve, and the other, H. mashpi, was discovered in the nearby Mashpi Reserve. Though the two species look similar to each other, their genetic differences are  large relative to the genetic distances between some other species pairs. They are examples of cryptic diversity that might have gone undetected if no one had bothered to analyze their DNA.

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Frogas A and B are H. mashpi. Frogs C and D are H. nouns. From the original article..

The species found in our reserve, H. nouns, was named in honor of Nouns, a global decentralized organization composed of owners of Nouns characters, which are digital art creations that live on the blockchain. The Nouns organization funds projects that protect the wonders of nature, and their support for EcoMinga has been very important to us.

Juan Manuel Guayasamin (the lead author of the paper) and Jaime Culebras sent me this account of how they found H. nouns:

“In March of 2012, in a field trip as part of a master’s degree program of the Universidad Indoamerica (Ecuador) and UIMP (Spain), a team of students and professors (Mariela Palacios, Jaime Culebras y Juan Manuel Guayasamin) found a beautiful glass frog on a leaf over a little stream in  the Los Cedros Reserve (http://reservaloscedros.org/about/), in the Cordillera de Toisán, Ecuador.”

“At the time it was identified as “Hyalinobatrachium valerioi”, but doubts about the identity stayed with us. Some years later, we found more examples in the Río Manduriacu Reserve (Fundacion EcoMinga), which adjoins Los Cedros Reserve, in several expeditions led by The Biodiversity Group, Fundación Cóndor, Fundación Ecominga, Centro Jambatu, the Universidad San Francisco de Quito (USFQ) y Photo Wildlife Tours. In these trips, during the night,  we heard frog songs in the distance, very distinct from those of the glass frogs previously known from the area (H. valerioi y H. aureoguttatum). We began to think it was possible that we were faced with a new species.”

“Finally, after years of gathering  data, we made various morphological and genetic analyses, which showed that this beautiful frog was indeed new.  The new species, which we named Hyalinobatrachium nouns, is mophologically identical to another species which we also described from the Mashpi Reserve and Tayra Reserve (H. mashpi). Nevertheless we found that the genetic differentiatiom between these two species is 4.6%-4.7%, indicating that the two species are distinct in spite of the very small distance separating the populations (less than 20 km),  20 kms). This shows us once again that the Andes in general, and the Cordillera del Toisán in particular, have a very high level of endemism.”

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Hyalinobatrachium nouns hanging from the underside of a leaf with an egg cluster. Photo: Jose Vieira.

Not much is known about the ecology and behavior of H. nouns, but it is probably similar to that of H. mashpi and other glass frogs in the same genus.  Members of this genus typically sit on the undersides of leaves along steep streams; H. mashpi was mostly 3-14 meters above the ground, makig them very difficult to find. Males of H. mashpi have been found near egg clusters, perhaps guarding them.

Both these new species have tiny ranges in a region where mining is a constant threat. The authors recommend that both species be classified as “Endangered” under the criteria of the International Union for the Conservation of Nature (IUCN). The scientfic paper describing these frogs says this about their conservation status:

“Amphibians are the most threatened Andean vertebrates. Amphibian diversity and endemicity are particularly accentuated in the Andes––roughly 70% of the 1,120 reported species are endemic (CEPF, 2021). The Andes also boasts the highest rate of new amphibian species discoveries of any biogeographic region in South America (Vasconcelos et al., 2019; Womack et al., 2021). Yet, amphibians are particularly susceptible to anthropogenic impacts (Duellman & Trueb, 1994; Lips et al., 2006; Pounds et al., 2006; Scheele et al., 2019), which are immense in the Andes. Currently, only 8% of Andean amphibian species are well-protected (Bax & Francesconi, 2019). An array of human pressures continues to diminish the integrity of Andean terrestrial and freshwater ecosystems (Myers et al., 2000; Knee & Encalada, 2014; Roy et al., 2018; Bax & Francesconi, 2019; CEPF, 2021; Torremorell et al., 2021). As a result, taxonomic groups such as glassfrogs—where a majority of members are endemic to the Tropical Andes, and individual species often have highly restricted distributions—are especially at risk of population declines and extinction (Aguilar et al., 2012; Guayasamin et al., 2019b, 2020; Ortega-Andrade et al., 2021).”

Thanks very much to Juan Manuel Guayasamin, the Biodiversity Group, the Universidad San Francisco de Quito, and the rest of the team for investigating our reserves’ biodiversity and supporting our conservation work! Thanks also to our partner Rainforest Trust (US) which supports our work in the Choco region and which connected us with Nouns DOA, and to World Land Trust for their support of our work in the region as well.

Lou Jost, President, Fundacion EcoMinga

¡Nueva ranita de cristal de nuestra Reserva Manduriacu publicada hoy!

IMG 01 – Hyalinobatrachium nouns. Click para agrandar. Fotografía: Jaime Culebras

El occidente de Ecuador es excepcionalmente rico en ranitas de cristal, nombradas así debido a que su vientre es transparente y sus órganos internos son claramente visibles. Hoy un grupo de herpetòlogos publicaron las descripciones de dos nuevas especies de ranas de cristal en el género Hyalinobatrachium del occidente de Ecuador. Estas son ranas excepcionalmente hermosas y los descubridores estaban muy emocionados de haberlas encontrado. Una especie, H. nouns, fue encontrada en nuestra Reserva Manduriacu y en la cercana Reserva Los Cedros, y la otra, H. mashpi, fue descubierta en la cercana Reserva Mashpi. Aunque ambas especies se ven similares entre sí, sus diferencias genéticas son grandes en relación con las distancias genéticas entre algunos otros pares de especies. Ellas son ejemplo de diversidad críptica que pudo haber pasado desapercibida si nadie se hubiese interesado en analizar su ADN.

IMG 02 – Ranas A y B son H. mashpi. Ranas C y D son H. nouns. Del artículo original.

Las especies encontradas en nuestra reserva, H. nouns, fue nombrada en honor a Nouns, una organización global descentralizada compuesta de dueños de los caracteres Nouns los cuales son creaciones de arte digitales que viven en el blockchain (cadena de bloques). La organización Nouns financia proyectos que protegen las maravillas de la naturaleza, y su aporte a EcoMinga ha sido muy importante para nosotros.

Juan Manuel Guayasamín (el autor principal del artículo) y Jaime Culebras, me enviaron este reporte de como ellos encontraron a H. nouns:

“En Marzo del 2012, en una salida de campo como parte de un programa de masterado de la Universidad Indoamerica (Ecuador) y UIMP (España), un equipo de estudiantes y profesores (Mariela Palacios, Jaime Culebras y Juan Manuel Guayasamín) encontraron una hermosa ranita de cristal en una hoja sobre un pequeño arroyo en la Reserva Los Cedros (http://reservaloscedros.org/about/), en la Cordillera de Toisán, Ecuador.”

“Al momento fue identificada como “Hyalinobatrachium valerioi“, pero las dudas sobre su identidad se quedaron con nosotros. Algunos años después, encontramos más ejemplares en la Reserva Río Manduriacu (Fundación EcoMinga), la cual colinda con la Reserva Los Cedros, en varias expediciones lideradas por The Biodiversity Group, Fundación Cóndor, Fundación Ecominga, Centro Jambatu, la Universidad San Francisco de Quito (USFQ) y Photo Wildlife Tours. En estas expediciones, durante la noche, escuchábamos a lo lejos los cantos de rana, muy distintos a los de las ranas de cristal previamente conocidas en el área (H. valerioi y H. aureguttatum). Empezamos a pensar que era posible que nos encontráramos con una nueva especie.”

“Finalmente, después de años de recopilación de datos, hicimos varios análisis morfológicos y genéticos, los cuales mostraron que esta hermosa rana en efecto era nueva. La nueva especie, a la cual nombramos Hyalinobatrachium nouns, es morfológicamente idéntica a otra especie que también describimos de la Reserva Mashpi y la Reserva Tayra (H. mashpi). Sin embargo, encontramos que la diferenciación genética entre estas dos especies es 4.6 – 4.7%, lo que indica que ambas especies son distintas a pesar de la muy pequeña distancia que separa las poblaciones (menos de 20 km). Esto nos muestra una vez más que los Andes en general, y la Cordillera del Toisán en particular, tienen un alto nivel de endemismo”.

IMG 03 – Hyalinobatrachium nouns colgando del envés de una hoja con un grupo de huevos. Fotografía: José Vieira

No se conoce mucho sobre la ecología y comportamiento de H. nouns, pero es probablemente similar a aquella de H. mashpi y otras ranas de cristal en el mismo género. Miembros de este género típicamente se posan en el e​nvès de las hojas a lo largo de arroyos empinados; H. mashpi se encontraba mayormente a 3-14 metros sobre el suelo, haciéndolas muy difìciles de encontrar. Los machos de H. mashpi han sido encontrados cerca de grupos de huevos, tal vez cuidándolos.

Ambas especies nuevas tienen pequeños rangos en una región donde la minería es una amenaza constante. Los autores recomiendan que ambas especies sean clasificadas como “En Peligro” bajo los criterios de la Unión Internacional para la Conservación de la Naturaleza (UICN). El artículo científico describiendo estas ranas dice lo siguiente sobre su estado de conservación:

“Los anfibios son los vertebrados andinos más amenazados. La diversidad de anfibios y su endemismo son particularmente marcados en Los Andes — aproximadamente el 70% de las 1120 especies reportadas son endémicas (CEPF, 2021). Los Andes también cuentan con la tasa más alta de descubrimientos de nuevas especies de anfibios de cualquier región biogeográfica en América del Sur (Vasconcelos et al., 2019Womack et al., 2021). sin embargo, los anfibios son particularmente susceptibles a los impactos antropogénicos (Duellman & Trueb, 1994Lips et al., 2006Pounds et al., 2006Scheele et al., 2019), los cuales son inmensos en los Andes. Actualmente, solo el 8% de las especies de anfibios andinos estan bien protegidos. (Bax & Francesconi, 2019). Una serie de presiones humanas continúa disminuyendo la integridad de los ecosistemas andinos terrestres y de agua dulce  (Myers et al., 2000Knee & Encalada, 2014Roy et al., 2018Bax & Francesconi, 2019CEPF, 2021Torremorell et al., 2021). Como resultado, los grupos taxonómicos como las ranitas de cristal -donde la mayor parte de los miembros son endémicos de los Andes Tropicales, y las especies individuales a menudo tienen distribuciones altamente restringidas- están especialmente en riesgo de disminución de la población y extinción (Aguilar et al., 2012Guayasamin et al., 2019b2020Ortega-Andrade et al., 2021).”

Muchas gracias a Juan Manuel Guayasamín, The Biodiversity Group, la Universidad San Francisco de Quito, y el resto del equipo ¡por investigar la biodiversidad de nuestras reservas y apoyar nuestro trabajo de conservación!

Lou Jost, Presidente, Fundación EcoMinga.

Traducción: Salomé Solórzano-Flores

Two new species of frogs from our Banos-area reserves

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The new species Pristimantis burtoniorum. Click to enlarge.  Photo: Juan Pablo Reyes/EcoMinga

 

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The new species Pristimantis maryanneae. Click to enlarge.  Photo: Lou Jost/EcoMinga

[Traducccion en espanol abajo]

Today Juan Pablo Reyes, Carolina Reyes, Daniela Franco-Mena, Mario Yanez-Munoz, and myself  published two new species of frogs from the cloud forests of our Banos-area reserves: They both belong to the enormous neotropical genus Pristimantis. These two species are fairly small and camouflaged but intricately beautiful.

Pristimantis burtoniorum is distinguished by its deep red “flash colors” around the bases of its legs; these colors can be almost completely hidden when the legs are in a resting position. many Pristimantis species have bright hidden colors and patterns. It was found near Banos in our Machay Reserve, part of our “Forests in the Sky” corridor connecting Los Llanganates National Park and Sangay National Park. We named this species after John and Viv Burton, founders of the World Land Trust (UK), our main partner for our Banos-area reserves to date.They not only helped us establish our largest reserves here, but they also played a major role in the conservation of nature all over the rest of the globe. The World Land Trust was a pioneer in supporting conservation via direct land purchases by independent local organizations. We’re especially happy to name a frog after them, because John is a herpetologist, co-author of “A Field Guide to the Reptiles and Amphibians of Britain and Europe” and author of  “Reptiles: A Golden Photo Guide“.

The other frog described in the same article is Pristimantis maryanneae. It has a complex camouflage pattern with a  bright tan nose and some faint green mottling scattered on the bases of the legs. It was found in our Naturetrek-Viscaya Reserve, also near Banos. We named this species after Maryanne Mills, co-founder of Naturetrek (UK) with her husband David Mills. Naturetrek is Britain’s premier nature tourism operator, and I used to work as a guide for them many years ago.They have been supporting EcoMinga for many years, and the forest where this species lives was purchased with funds from them.

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Pristimantis maryanneae. Click to enlarge.  Photo: Lou Jost/EcoMinga

I waa able to spend some time photographing this species, so here are a couple more portraits. It was adorable and seemed to like to bury itself in leaf litter. Its camouflage is very good and I think it would be impossible to see unless it moved.

Pristimantis maryanneae. Click to enlarge. Photo: Lou Jost/EcoMinga


Pristimantis maryanneae. Click to enlarge. Photo: Lou Jost/EcoMinga

Our article was entitled “Strong differentiatin between amphibian communities on two adjacent mountains in the upper Rio Pastaza watershed of Ecuador, with descriptions of two new species of terrestrial frogs“. Besides the full scientific descriptions of these two new frogs, we also illustrated numerous other new species awaiting future descriptions. We also analyzed the similarity of the frog communities of the Naturetrek-Viscaya Reserve to the Machay Reserve, which are only fifteen kilometers apart, though on different ridge systems. With standardized sampling effort, investigators found no shared species between these two reserves. The number of individuals detected in the Naturetrek- Viscaya Reserve was much lower than that of the Machay Reserve, so further work may change this situation, but the compositions of these two adjacent communities are clearly quite different from each other. We have seen similar patterns with certain orchid genera (especially Lepanthes).  These differences between mountains lead to very high levels of total diversity in the Andes, and this is what we are trying to protect with our mosaics of Andean reserves.

Lou Jost, Fundacion EcoMinga

Dos nuevas especies de rana de nuestras reservas del área de Baños
 
IMG 01 – La nueva especie Pristimantis burtoniorum. Clic para agrandar. Fotografía: Juan Pablo Reyes / EcoMinga
 
IMG 02 – La nueva especie Pristimantis maryanneae. Clic para agrandar. Fotografía: Lou Jost / EcoMinga
 
Hoy, Juan Pablo Reyes, Carolina Reyes, Daniela Franco-Mena, Mario Yánez-Muñoz, y mi persona, publicamos dos nuevas especies de ranas del bosque nublado de nuestras reservas del área de Baños: Ambas pertenecen al enorme género neotropical Pristimantis. Estas dos especies son bastante pequeñas y camufladas, pero intrincadamente hermosas.
 
Pristimantis burtoniorum se distingue por sus “colores de destello” profundamente rojos alrededor de la base de sus patas; estos colores pueden estar casi completamente ocultos cuando las patas están en una posición de descanso. Muchas especies de Pristimantis tienen escondidos patrones y colores brillantes. Se la encontró cerca de Baños en nuestra Reserva Machay, parte de nuestro corredor “Bosques en el Cielo” conectando el Parque Nacional Los Llanganates y el Parque Nacional Sangay. Nombramos esta especie en honor a John y Viv Burton, fundadores de la World Land Trust (Reino Unido), nuestros principales socios para nuestras reservas del área de Baños a la fecha. Ellos no solo nos ayudaron a establecer nuestras reservas más grandes aquí, sino también jugaron un papel principal en la conservación de la naturaleza en el resto del mundo. La World Land Trust fue pionera en apoyar la conservación mediante la adquisición de tierra directa por organizaciones locales independientes. Nosotros estamos especialmente felices de nombrar una rana en honor a ellos, ya que John es herpetólogo,​ coautor de “Una guía de campo de los Reptiles y Anfibios de Gran Bretaña y Europa” y autor de “Reptiles: Una Guía de Fotografías Doradas”
 
La otra rana, descrita en el mismo artículo es Pristimantis maryanneae. Tiene un patrón de camuflaje complejo con una nariz de color canela brillante y algunas manchas verdes tenues esparcidas en la base de las patas. Fue encontrada en nuestra Reserva Naturetrek-Viscaya, también cerca de Baños. Nombramos esta especie en honor a Maryanne Mills, cofundadora de Naturetrek (Reino Unido) con su esposo David Mills. Naturetrek es el principal operador de turismo de naturaleza en Gran Bretaña, y yo solía trabajar como guía para ellos hace muchos años atrás. Ellos han estado apoyando a EcoMinga por varios años, y el bosque donde esta especie vive fue adquirida con fondos de ellos.
 
IMG Pristimantis maryanneae. Clic para agrandar. Fotografía: Lou Jost / EcoMinga
 
Pude pasar algún tiempo fotografiando estas especies, así que aquí hay un par de retratos más. Fue adorable y parecía gustarle enterrarse en la hojarasca. Su camuflaje es muy bueno y pienso que sería imposible verlo a menos que se moviera.
 
IMG Pristimantis maryanneae. Clic para agrandar. Fotografía: Lou Jost / EcoMinga
 
IMG Pristimantis maryanneae. Clic para agrandar. Fotografía: Lou Jost / EcoMinga
 
Nuestro artículo se tituló “Fuerte diferenciación entre comunidades de anfibios en dos montañas adyacentes en la cuenca alta del Río Pastaza de Ecuador, con descripción de dos nuevas especies de ranas terrestres“. Además de las descripciones científicas completas de estas dos nuevas ranas, también ilustramos otras numerosas nuevas especies esperando descripciones futuras. También analizamos la semejanza de las comunidades de ranas de la Reserva Naturetrek-Viscaya y la Reserva Machay, las cuales están separadas solo por quince kilómetros, aunque en diferentes sistemas de crestas. Con un esfuerzo de muestreo estandarizado, los investigadores no encontraron especies compartidas entre estas dos reservas. El número de individuos detectados en la Reserva Naturetrek – Viscaya fue mucho menor que el de la Reserva Machay, así que un trabajo mayor podría cambiar esta situación, pero la composición de estas dos comunidades adyacentes son claramente muy diferentes una de la otra. Hemos visto patrones similares con ciertos géneros de orquídeas (especialmente Lepanthes). Estas diferencias entre montañas conducen a niveles muy altos de diversidad total en los Andes, y esto es lo que estamos tratando de proteger con nuestros mosaicos de reservas Andinas.
 
Lou Jost, Fundación EcoMinga
Traducción: Salomé Solórzano-Flores