White-lipped Peccaries in our Cerro Candelaria Reserve. Photo: Santiago Recalde/EcoMinga.

[Traduccion a Espanol abajo]

My colleagues and I have been exploring what is now the Naturetrek and Cerro Candelaria Reserves for decades, and the El Placer community has been exploring it for a century. We thought we knew all the large mammal species that could be found there. But a few weeks ago our wardens were astonished to find a large herd of White-lipped Peccaries (Tayassu pecari) in our Cerro Candelaria Reserve. These are very large and rowdy wild pigs, much larger than the more common Collared Peccary (Pecari tajacu). Collared Peccaries are known from cloud forests and paramos near Banos, but these White-lipped Peccaries are much more at home in Amazonian rainforests, and this new record from Cerro Candelaria Reserve is near the highest elevation ever recorded for the species.

White-lipped Peccaries in our Cerro Candelaria Reserve. Video: Santiago Recalde/EcoMinga.

Subsequent interviews with  the local people revealed that this herd had come through our Naturetrek Reserve from the foothill forests farther to the east, near Rio Negro and Cumanda, where biologists from the Universidad Estatal Amazonica (including our manager Juan Pablo Reyes) had earlier detected a population using camera traps.

These are challenging animals to conserve, because they range very widely. They tend to get into trouble with humans.  This herd apparently destroyed a neighbor’s crop field in a single hour, and when the owner tried to chase them out, they reacted aggressively. In the Amazon they often travel in herds of 200 or more, and such herds have been known to kill even jaguars in defense of their young.  I’ve occasionally had to climb trees to escape those Amazonian herds.

I’ve heard that fourteen of the pigs in this herd have been shot and eaten when they were off our reserve. This rate of attrition is not sustainable, but it will be very hard to control. The herd certainly won’t stay on our reserves, because we have very little area at low enough elevations. They may get themselves into trouble with humans, but on the other hand they may head deep into the jungle, far from hunters, returning only periodically.

A few years ago, in the lowland Amazonian rainforests of Peru, I filmed a herd of White-lipped Peccaries feeding at a clay salt lick:

White-lipped Peccaries in Peru. Video: Lou Jost

We have salt licks here in our reserves too. Maybe some day we will be treated to a sight like this here!

Lou Jost

EcoMinga Foundation


Mis colegas y yo hemos estado explorando lo que ahora son las Reservas Naturetrek y Cerro Candelaria por décadas, y la comunidad El Placer ha estado explorandola por un siglo. Pensamos que conocíamos todas las grandes especies de mamíferos que se podrían encontrar por aquí. Pero hace unas pocas semanas, nuestros guardias se sorprendieron al encontrar una gran piara de Pecaríes de Labio Blanco (Tayassu pecari) en nuestra Reserva Cerro Candelaria. Estos son cerdos salvajes muy grandes y ruidosos, mucho más grandes que el Pecarí de Collar (Pecari tajacu). Los pecaríes de collar son conocidos de los bosques nublados y páramos cerca de Baños, pero este Pecarí de Labio Blanco se encuentran mucho más en casa en las selvas amazónicas, y este registro de la Reserva Cerro Candelaria está cerca de las elevaciones más altas alguna vez registradas para la especie.
Entrevistas subsecuentes con la gente local reveló que esta piara ha venido de nuestra Reserva Naturetrek de los bosques de las estribaciones más al este, cerca de Rio Negro y Cumanda, donde los biólogos de la Universidad Estatal Amazónica (incluyendo nuestro gerente Juan Pablo Reyes) ha detectado tempranamente una población usando cámaras trampa.
Aquí hay animales desafiantes para conservar, porque varían mucho. Tienden a meterse en problemas con los humanos. Aparentemente, esta manada destruyó un campo de cultivo vecino en una hora, y cuando el dueño intentó expulsarlos, reaccionaron agresivamente. En el Amazonas a menudo viajan en manadas de 200 o más, y se sabe que tales manadas incluso matan jaguares en defensa de sus crías. De vez en cuando he tenido que trepar árboles para escapar a estas piaras Amazónicas.
He escuchado que 14 de los cerdos en esta piara han sido disparados y comidos cuanto estuvieron fuera de nuestra reserva. Esta tasa de deserción no es sustentable, pero será muy difícil de controlar. La piara ciertamente no permanecerá en nuestras reservas, porque tenemos muy poca área a elevaciones lo suficientemente bajas. Pueden meterse en problemas con los humanos, pero por otro lado, pueden adentrarse en la jungla, lejos de los cazadores, regresando solo periodicamente.
Hace unos pocos años, en las tierras bajas de la selva amazónica del Perú, filmé una piara de Pecaríes de Labio Blanco alimentandose con una sal de arcilla:
Tenemos sal de arcilla aquí en nuestra reserva también. Tal vez un día seremos tratados aquí con algo así.
Lou Jost, Fundación EcoMinga
Traducción: Salomé Solórzano- Flores


Bear update and puma problems too

Camera trap video of a Spectacled Bear eating a bull carcass near El Placer, Ecuador, next to our Machay and Naturetrek Reserves.  The bear first sniffs the camera, then eats. Video set up by Juan Pablo Reyes and Santiago Recalde, EcoMinga.

It has been a while since we’ve posted here. Readers might imagine that this means there is not much news to report, but in fact the opposite is true. We have been so busy, with so much going on, that we have not had time to sit back and write about what we are doing. I have just returned from Taiwan to give a talk about the mathematics of biodiversity and to work on the textbook that Anne Chao and I are writing. I finally have a bit of time to sit and write, and that is what I will try to do for the next few days…

Before I write posts on some of the new things, I’ll finish the bear story that I had left hanging in my last posts (here and here).

As regular readers may recall, one or more Spectacled Bears near our Cerro Candelaria, Naturetrek, and Machay reserves had been eating the crops of the local people and apparently killing a few of their cattle. We brought in a bear expert, Andres Laguna, to talk to the local people and take appropriate action. A bull had just recently died (possibly killed by the bear) and this gave us the chance to film and trap the bear.

We succeeded in the filming the bear visiting the carcass during the day (above) and also at night (below).

Spectacled Bear at night munching on rotten bull meat near El Placer. Video set up by Juan Pablo Reyes and Santiago Recalde, EcoMinga.

This was our chance to trap the bear. Unfortunately Andres was not able to return to our area in time, in spite of our promises to the community. We don’t have enough experience to trap the bear ourselves, so in the end we missed the opportunity to do something about it. Fortunately we have not received any new reports of dead cattle, but bears are still eating our neighbors’ corn.

Now the same people who are losing their cattle and corn to bears are starting to lose their chickens to puma. Two puma have been spotted with some regularity in the area, and recently puma tracks were found very close to homes.


A puma caught by a camera trap in our reserve near El Placer. Credit: Karima Lopez.

Our conservation successes are negatively affecting the local people, and if this continues, they will certainly take matters into their own hands and kill the offending animals….I am not sure what the solutions are. One obvious thing we can do is pay compensation for confirmed losses. We are also trying to involve the community with the reserve, to make them proud of it and to find ways that they can benefit economically from it. Then they may be able to overlook the  lost corn and chickens, though cattle are so valuable that no one can accept losing them.

Lou Jost/EcoMinga Foundation





Earth Day: High school students from Aldo Leopold’s alma mater spend a week in our Cerro Candelaria forest

Aldo Leopold’s 1949 book, “A Sand County Almanac”, was one of the first voices of the environmental consciousness that began to awaken in response to the post-World War II rise of man’s destructive power. The founder of Earth Day, Wisconsin Senator Gaylord Nelson, was deeply influenced by his writings.

Aldo Leopold wanted humanity to develop a land ethic, one that respected plants and non-human animals. He wrote:

“When god-like Odysseus returned from the wars in Troy, he hanged all on one rope a dozen slave-girls of his household whom he suspected of misbehavior during his absence.”

“This hanging involved no question of propriety. The girls were property. The disposal of property was then, as now, a matter of expediency, not of right and wrong. Concepts of right and wrong were not lacking from Odysseus’ Greece: witness the fidelity of his wife through the long years before at last his black-prowed galleys clove the wine-dark seas for home. The ethical structure of that day covered wives, but had not yet been extended to human chattels. During the three thousand years which have since elapsed, ethical criteria have been extended to many fields of conduct, with corresponding shrinkages in those judged by expediency only.”

“…There is as yet no ethic dealing with man’s relation to land and to the animals and plants which grow upon it. Land, like Odysseus’ slave-girls, is still property. The land-relation is still strictly economic, entailing privileges but not obligations.”

Perhaps (just perhaps) our ethical sphere has been extended a bit since Leopold wrote those words, but we have a long way to go. We spend less and less time in nature, to the point where most people today do not even know what real nature is. Intact ecosystems are now so rare that the vast majority of people will never experience them, much less fall in love with them. This visceral love of nature is the only thing that can drive people to sacrifice their own comforts to protect it.

Dr John L. Clark, who holds the Aldo Leopold Distinguished Teaching Chair at The Lawrenceville School, Aldo Leopold’s alma mater in New Jersey, is as much in love with nature as anyone I know. He has started a program to bring his high school biology students (ranging in age from 15-18 years old) to our reserves in Ecuador, to try to ignite this passion for real nature in the next generation.

John is an old friend of mine who used to be a Peace Corps volunteer here in the 1980s. He is now a famous botanist specializing in gesneriads, the African Violet family. He has published several monographs on gesneriad genera and has discovered many new species. Two years ago, as a professor at the University of Alabama, he brought a college biology class to our Rio Zunac Reserve to set up two quarter-hectare plots, in which every tree bigger than 10 cm in diameter was sampled, tagged, and identified. Dr David Neill from the Universidad Estatal Amazonica helped set up that plot and identified the trees. In the process they found what turned out to be two new species of Magnolia trees, and John discovered a new gesneriad in the genus Columnea.

Now in his new position at The Lawrenceville School, he has done the same thing with a dozen of his high school students, joining with David Neill again to set up a quarter-hectare plot in our Cerro Candelaria Reserve last month. It was a daring project, very unusual for an American high school.

Some of his students wrote about their experience. Here is Kaimansa Sowah’s essay, which she titled “Botanizing!”:

“Never had I seriously considered ecology or botany or even entomology as a field of interest until our trip to Cerro Candelaria on the eastern slopes of the Andes in Ecuador. Arriving in Quito on a Saturday morning with many missionary groups crowding the lines at immigration, I questioned if our work in Ecuador would have any real impact on the community. How could plant identification transcend traditional community service? It would not be until I was sitting around a fire at our high camp sipping tea made from recently collected crushed foliage of a Lauraceae we had found earlier, barely communicating sufficiently in my middle school Spanish that I managed to realize the profound importance of our trip to Ecuador.”

“The hike up to camp was brutal to say the least. Many of us had never hiked before and mounted on our backs were 50-pound packs with silica gel for preparing museum specimens, M&Ms (which would be our lunch for several days), and personal belongings. Our frequent stops for “Botanizing!” only heightened the difficulty level. Our expedition leader Dr. John Clark lights up at a fallen Gesneriaceae leaf, so throughout the hike and the trip as a whole, he was never short of excitement as our paths were lined with rare and new species. Fortunately, the view of mountains perfectly scattered, parting only for the rapids leading to and from waterfalls, fuelled our strenuous walk to the camp. The view never ceased to amaze us, and many of us still fail to believe its reality.”

“It was not until we began work on the plots that each of our own individual love for botany and plant life was established. Divided into groups of three, we established and inventoried tree diversity in a 0.25-hectare permanent plot. With the help of Tito, our guide, friend, and resident tree climber, we identified trees based on vegetative features (e.g., leaf patterns, leaf arrangement, smell), recorded DBH (diameter breast height), tree height, and tagged each tree with an aluminum label. Our field journals appeared something like this: “tree 4, subplot 5, 25 meter height, 18 cm DBH, simple-alternate leaves with milky sap (Moraceae?).” On the first day we found a cherry tree (Prunus sp.) that had never been observed by our resident scientist and tree expert, Dr. David Neill who is a professor of biology at the Universidad Estatal Amazónica. Many of the trees were challenging to identify, which only further affirmed how much biodiversity surrounded us. During a lunch break, we played a plant identification game where we were divided into teams and given Al Gentry’s book “A Field Guide to the Families and Genera of Woody Plants of North west South America.” Each team was timed in their ability to identify foliage to family. All of us being extremely competitive, we quickly held our leaves to the light using our hand lenses, crushing and smelling, and rapidly blurting out names like “Piperacae!” Euphoribacae!” “Melostomatacae!””

“Along with our own Dr. Clark were resident entomologists and ecologists who shared their love of biology. We also met the director and founder of the EcoMinga foundation, Lou Jost who is a theoretical mathematician, ecologist, and botanist who specializes in the study of orchids. We were surrounded by vast amounts of unique talent, which greatly sparked our own interests. Besides the fieldwork, we were able to connect and talk with our guides. They soon became our friends, and it was through conversations with them that we realized how grateful they were for our interest in visiting their reserve. No, as a sixteen-year-old girl, I had never thought of biodiversity research as one of my interests. And I cannot say whether it was our guide giving us hints during the scavenger hunt with his ability to identify plant families from meters away, or the sheer look of ecstasy when “Ranger”, also known as Dr. Clark, and Dr. Neill sat around their pressed leaves dumbfounded at a new species, or Darwin [Recalde]’s ability to navigate the maze-like mountains and carting us up steep hills. Nonetheless, this trip has piqued my interest and I suspect that botany and biodiversity will play a large role in my future.”

Eloise White wrote of her experience:

“…When I first signed up to travel to Ecuador with the School, I expected a week of light hiking, bonding with new friends, and great food, all coupled with the occasional botanical reference. While the food was indeed fantastic, the intensity of the trip took us all by surprise on the first day in the field, when we embarked on a challenging four-hour hike to our camp. It was not until after we finished showering in the beautiful waterfall and sat down at dinner to prepare our field notebooks for our work in the tree plots the next morning that I realized the importance of the work that we would accomplish during our time in the forest.”

“When we reached the plots bright and early the next day, we received instructions, and my group quickly fell into a rhythm of tagging trees with bright orange tape and communicating with our local guides who were climbing to the canopy of the trees, a task that gradually became easier as our Spanish improved. Each time that our guide, usually some 30 feet high in a tree, would cry “Ten cuidado!” the three students in my group would jump back and wait for an unidentified specimen to come crashing to the ground. That first day, in the moments that I spent with Dr. Clark, tagging and pressing plant samples into pages of newspaper, his excitement surrounding new and rare species was absolutely contagious. I found myself eager to memorize the names of plant species, to identify which types of bark had latex, and to distinguish simple leaves from compound leaves. Even now, I find myself so grateful to Dr. Clark and the other scientists accompanying us in the forest because they showed me what it means to be passionate about a specific field of study, something that I hope to do as I move forward in my Lawrenceville career, the college process, and my life.”

“…My Spanish teachers at The Lawrenceville School have always stressed the importance of experiencing the language abroad in order to truly further my understanding… Between trying to ask our guides to scale a certain tree to obtain a specimen and sitting around our campfire late in the night, telling ghost stories and jokes with Jordi and Darwin, I was constantly speaking Spanish. The pure exposure to the language coupled with the locals’ willingness to help me practice provided me with a unique opportunity to further an area of interest which I had not previously devoted much attention to. Furthermore, partially overcoming the language barrier opened the group up to an irreplaceable chance to form lasting friendships with locals, a memory that I will forever treasure. Lawrenceville constantly stresses the importance of expanding our horizons, and I can attest that in communicating with and working alongside unfamiliar faces, the twelve of us expanded our own world views significantly.”

“Before embarking on our journey, our teachers made it clear that our accommodations would be far from luxurious. We were told us that we would be perpetually damp, sweaty, and dirty, all of which later proved true. However, I will be the first to say that the view from our wooden cabin base camp without windows, doors, or even walls was extraordinary, rivaling that from any mountain getaway or island. When we summited Cerro Candelaria (3800+ m), while it was extremely challenging and put both our bodies and minds to the test, the breathtaking outlook from the top instantly made our hard work worth it.”

“Overall, my work and experiences in Ecuador were once-in-a-lifetime opportunities. They opened my eyes up to an entirely new scope of interests, people, and awareness. For example, as I previously planned on dropping out of Spanish for my senior year, I have changed my mind and will continue to advance my understanding of the language, hopefully into college. As I begin the college search, I have been relentlessly pestering my counselor about which schools have the best programs to study abroad while working with the science department. I attribute these shifts in my interests to my recent experience in Ecuador.”

Vivienne Gao expresses the very real physical challenges of this trip:

“Honestly, if I had known our expedition to Ecuador involved so much hiking, I probably would not have signed up. I’ve always been more comfortable in the water; I prefer swimming over running and am generally more athletic when I am not on land, so the minute I found out that our first hike to low camp would take roughly four hours, I definitely had my doubts…The day was hot, but not unpleasant, but I still kept my hair in braids to keep it off my neck. Once we began our hike however, the physical exertion made the heat borderline unbearable. We all carried large Osprey backpacks with our personal belongings, and these bags were not only heavy but also didn’t breathe well. Sweat happily gathered between my back and my pack, soaking through my shirt so that when I finally peeled the pack off, my shirt still clung to me as a dog’s fur clings to it, dripping, rinsed after a soapy bath in the backyard. The hike was mostly uphill, but the terrain varied. We were slopping through mud, climbing over rocks, and wading through streams, sometimes on level ground and sometimes on downhill slopes, but everything led us upwards eventually.”

“I remember seeing the cabin for the first time after three or so hours of hiking and thinking that this was the best moment of my life. I had fallen behind with a couple friends, so the rest of the group was already in the cabin waiting for us. As I slowly trudged up the hill, humoring the impressive cramp in my right calf that had formed over the duration of the hike, I congratulated myself for completing the hike, a feat that I considered the most difficult thing I’ve ever done. Little did I know that in the days to come, I would experience hikes many times more difficult than this one, a prospect far beyond my wildest imaginations…”

“Twenty minutes before we reached low camp, my small group of hiking companions and I had come across waterfall, the same waterfall that would host our daily shower and laundry trips. After reaching camp, everyone, me included, was excited to wash the salt and dirt off their bodies. The idea of showering in a waterfall enticed me, but my legs caved at the thought of hiking another twenty minutes to the waterfall, yet I went anyways. The waterfall became my favorite place and I went everyday after that.”

“I came back from Ecuador having learned more about my physical and mental limits, surprised at how hard I could actually push myself. I lost eleven pounds but earned so much more in experience and memories. The trip is something I will never forget, and who knows, maybe someday I’ll return, ready to face the challenges I faced this time and conquer them.”

As his students noticed, John Clark was at least as excited as they were:

“I am often asked how I know when something I come across is a new species. It is important to note that describing a new species is a process that is collections-based, requires several formal criteria outlined by the International Code of Nomenclature (ICN), and is contingent on a peer-reviewed publication. It is considered by some biologists (e.g., L.E. Skog who co-chaired my PhD committee) as “bad botanical etiquette” to say something is new without data. Nevertheless, outlined here are four species that I am confident have not been previously described. My doctoral dissertation resulted in a monographic revision of Glossoloma (Clark 2005). This is a group of plants that I dedicated more than a decade studying and when finished, I expected that there would be an occasional new species that would represent something that was not included in the monograph (Clark 2005). For example, Karyn Cichocki observed a new species of Glossoloma in 2007 when assisting me on an expedition in Ecuador. An additional new species was described with a student as a result of an expedition in Colombia (Rodas & Clark 2014). What I did not expect to find in Cerro Candelaria was a new species of Glossoloma every 500 meters in elevation change. I found three new species of Glossoloma between our base camp and the high camp. We also discovered a an undescribed species of Drymonia, which is a group that Laura Clavijo and I have studied together for more than eight years. I directed Laura’s dissertation committee (2007 to 2015) and together we have published more than eight papers on Drymonia. Thus, the four undescribed species featured in Figure 1 [below] are based on ongoing studies of museum specimens, extensive fieldwork, and comprehensive review of taxonomic literature. The remarkable discovery of biodiversity featured in Figure 1 is an example of the urgency and need for additional studies in the Neotropics.”

“There are also rare species from Cerro Candelaria that I did not expect to find. Two collections represent populations that were not previously known. The rarest plant that we found was Columnea bivalvis (photo below, D and E), which was previously only known from a single population (Amaya-Márquez & Clark 2011). [Note added by LJ: That original population was found in what is now our Rio Machay Reserve.] Drymonia ignea (photo below, A and B) is endemic to the eastern slopes of the Andes and was previously only known from 5 populations (Clark 2013). Never have I seen more than a few individuals of Drymonia ignea growing together and along the ridgeline there were multiple areas of ten or more individuals.”

The Lawrenceville School students not only gave us their friendship and enthusiasm but also brought the gift of electricity to our research stations. I’ll save that story for a separate post.

The Lawrenceville School staff who visited us: Baptiste Bataille, Jennifer Mayr (her husband is related to famous evolutionary biologist Ernest Mayr!) and John L. Clark.

The Lawrenceville School staff who visited us: Baptiste Bataille, Jennifer Mayr (her husband is related to famous evolutionary biologist Ernest Mayr!) and John L. Clark.

The essay excerpts used here are from John’s fuller version of this story which will soon be published by the magazine “Gesneriads”. They are used here with John’s, the school’s, and the magazine editor’s permission. Thanks John, and thanks Lawrenceville School students, for a wonderful cultural exchange and exciting scientific discoveries! Your enthusiasm and that of your students inspires us and makes our work feel worth the trouble. Lawrenceville School students, you literally walk in the footsteps of the great Aldo Leopold, and I hope that like him, some of you can help the earth face the challenges that your own generation will witness.

EcoMinga also thanks the World Land Trust and their donors Puro Coffee, Naturetrek, and PricewaterhouseCoopers for funding the Cerro Candelaria Reserve, and their donor Noel McWilliam for the funds to build the research station where these students, and many other students and scientists, stayed.

The World Land Trust’s “Forests in the Sky” appeal continues to expand the protection of this area.

Lou Jost

Landscape-level conservation becomes a reality for EcoMinga

We’ve recenty signed the papers and made the down payment for a key six-hundred-hectare property that protects virtually the entire watershed of the Rio Machay, from the high peak of Cerro Mayordomo (3400m) in the Llanganates National Park down almost to the Rio Pastaza. This property adjoins the other large purchases (about 1000 ha) we made a few months ago (see this post) on the same mountain. We’ll call this the Rio Machay Reserve. This enormous block of forest, twice as large as our Rio Zunac Reserve, connects to our Naturetrek Reserve on the south side of the Rio Pastaza, which in turn connects to our largest reserve, Cerro Candelaria, which stretches south to the border of Sangay National Park.

We had been working since our inception ten years ago to complete this connection between the two major national parks, Llanganates and Sangay. This wildlife corridor was first proposed by the the World Wildlife Fund and the now-defunct Fundacion Natura many years ago to allow wildlife to pass between the national parks. Corridors from low to high elevations, such as this one, also help bird species which move to different elevations at different times of year, such as some tropical hummingbirds and some fruit-eating birds. Corridors across elevation gradients also provide some insurance against climate change; as the climate warms, species can move up the mountains to keep pace with the changes. All these things require unfragmented, continuous stretches of forest across a wide range of elevations.

The high alpine paramo boundary between our Cerro Candelaria Reserve and Sangay National Park. Photo: Recalde brothers/EcoMinga.

The high alpine paramo boundary between our Cerro Candelaria Reserve and Sangay National Park. Photo: Recalde brothers/EcoMinga.

This proposed corridor was incorporated into the strategic plan of the local municipal governments (Banos, Mera, Palora) in 2002, even before we existed as a foundation (though we played a role in this process as private individuals back then). Unfortunately the declaration existed only on paper, and there were no new regulations on land use. Initially I tried to get Fundacion Natura and the local municipal governments to buy and to make the corridor a reality, but they argued that they did not have the funds. This is one of the reasons we formed EcoMinga; it seemed that we would have to do it ourselves rather than get other entities to do it. So in 2006 we began to make it real with actual land purchases, financed by the World Land Trust. There are still some bottlenecks and small gaps, but we have now finished the hard part, the uncertain part, the part that required a small miracle to complete. That miracle was the World Land Trust’s choice of EcoMinga as the beneficiary of their annual October Big Match fund drive, and the generous support that this fund drive received. Thanks to WLT and to the many donors who helped make this corridor a reality, including Sam Crothers, Mark Wilson, Dan Thompson, Julie Wassermann, Paul and Katy and Al Jost, and Richard and Katie Brindle. Most of the donors made donations directly to WLT so we cannot thank them by name, but they have made a huge and very positive impact on the landscape here.

Teagueia alyssana, which I discovered on Cerro Mayordomo. Photo: Lou Jost

Teagueia alyssana, which I discovered on Cerro Mayordomo. Photo: Lou Jost

The addition of Cerro Mayordomo to our reserve system is exciting. The peak has inspired oral legends of enchanted lakes with ducks made of gold, and angry spirits that keep humans out by sending frightening thunderstorms when someone tries to enter. But the reality is even more fantastic than the legends. The highest forest of this mountain is the place where I first discovered the spectacular Teagueia orchid radiation that I described in last year’s Darwin Day post. The many Teagueia species on this mountain are completely different from the sixteen species of Teagueia at the other end of this new corridor, on Cerro Candelaria, even though Cerro Candelaria and Cerro Mayordomo have seemingly-identical climates and are only 13 km apart. No one knows why they are different.

The view from near the top of Cerro Mayordomo, looking southwest towards Volcan Tungurahua, the snow-capped peak on the left, and Chimborazo, the snow-capped peak on the right. Chimborazo is the highest point on earth, higher than Everest in terms of distance from the earth's center. Photo: Lou Jost.

The view from near the top of Cerro Mayordomo, looking southwest towards Volcan Tungurahua, the snow-capped peak on the left, and Chimborazo, the snow-capped peak on the right. Chimborazo is the highest point on earth, higher than Everest in terms of distance from the earth’s center. Photo:Lou Jost.

For this latest purchase, the World Land Trust went out on a limb for us. WLT still has to raise the money to make the final payment for this purchase in January 2017. Please help them if you can!

Lou Jost


La conservación a nivel de paisaje se vuelve una realidad para EcoMinga
IMG – Cerro Mayordomo, en el extremo norte de nuestro corredor forestal, visto desde el punto más alto al otro lado del corredor, Cerro Candelaria a 13 km.
Recientemente hemos firmado los artículos y hecho el pago inicial de una propiedad clave de seiscientas hectáreas que protegen relativamente la cuenca completa de Rio Machay, desde la cumbre del Cerro Mayordomo (3400 m) en el Parque Nacional Llanganates hasta casi el Río Pastaza. Esta propiedad colinda con las otras grandes compras (unas 1000 Ha.) que hicimos hace unos meses (ver este post) en la misma montaña. A esto lo llamaremos Reserva Rio Machay. Este enorme bloque de bosque, dos veces más grande que nuestra Reserva Río Zuñac, se conecta con nuestra Reserva Naturetrek en el lado sur del Río Pastaza, que a su vez conecta con nuestra reserva más grande, Cerro Candelaria, que se extiende hacia el sur hasta la frontera con el Parque Nacional Sangay. 
IMG – Click para agrandar. Nuestro corredor entre el Parque Nacional Llanganates (izquierda, borde verde) y el Parque Nacional Sangay (derecha, borde verde). La Reserva Rio Machay (borde naranja) es la tierra recién comprada a través del llamamiento “Bosques en el cielo” de World Land Trust. Nuestra Reserva Naturetrek (delineada en amarillo) y nuestra Reserva Cerro Candelaria (delineada en rojo) son las otras partes del corredor.
Hemos estado trabajando desde nuestro inicio diez años atrás para completar esta conexión entre los dos mayores Parques Nacionales, Llanganates y Sangay. Este corredor de vida silvestre fue propuesto por el Fondo Mundial para la vida Silvestre y la ahora desaparecida Fundación Natura muchos años atrás para permitir a la vida silvestre pasar entre los parques nacionales.  
Los corredores de bajas a altas elevaciones, como esta, también ayudan a las especies de aves las cuales se mueven a diferentes elevaciones en diferentes momentos del año, como algunos colibríes tropicales y algunas aves que comen fruta. Los corredores a lo largo de gradientes de elevación también brindan cierta seguridad contra el cambio climático; a medida que el clima se calienta, las especies pueden ascender por las montañas para seguir el ritmo de los cambios. Todas estas cosas requieren extensiones de bosque continuas y no fragmentadas en una amplia gama de elevaciones. 
IMG – El límite alto del páramo entre nuestra Reserva Cerro Candelaria y el Parque Nacional Sangay. Fotografía: Hermanos Recalde /EcoMinga
Este corredor propuesto fue incorporado al plan estratégico de los gobiernos locales municipales (Baños, Mera, Palora) en 2002, incluso antes de que existamos como una fundación (aunque jugamos un rol en este proceso como individuos privados en aquel momento). Desafortnunadamente la declaración existió sólo en papel, y no hubo nuevas regulaciones de uso de tierra. Inicialmente traté de que la Fundación Natura y los gobiernos municipales locales compraran e hicieran realidad el corredor, pero argumentaron que no tenían los fondos. Este es una de las razones por las que formamos EcoMinga; parece que tendríamos que hacerlo nosotros mismos en lugar de que otras entidades lo hicieran. Así que en 2006 comenzamos a hacerlo realidad con compras reales de tierras, financiadas por World Land Trust. Todavía hay algunos cuellos de botella y pequeñas lagunas, pero ahora hemos terminado la parte difícil, la parte incierta, la parte que requirió un pequeño milagro para completarse. Ese milagro fue la elección de EcoMinga por parte de la World Land Trust como beneficiaria de su campaña anual de recaudación de fondos Big Match de octubre, y el generoso apoyo que recibió esta recaudación de fondos. Gracias a WLT y a los muchos donantes que ayudaron a hacer realidad este corredor, incluidos San Crothers, Mark Wilson, Dan Thompson, Julie Wasserman, Paul y Katy y Al Jost, y Richard y Katie Brindle. La mayoría de los donantes hicieron donaciones directamente a WLT, por lo que no podemos agradecerles por su nombre, pero han tenido un impacto enorme y muy positivo en el paisaje aquí. 
IMG – Teagueia alussana, la cual descubrí en el Cerro Mayordomo. Fotografía: Lou Jost. 
La adición del Cerro Mayordomo a nuestro sistema de reservas es emocionante. El pico ha inspirado leyendas orales de lagos encantados con patos hechos de oro y espíritus enojados que mantienen alejados a los humanos enviando tormentas eléctricas aterradoras cuando alguien intenta entrar. Pero la realidad es aún más fantástica que las leyendas. El bosque más alto de esta montaña es el lugar donde descubrí por primera vez la espectacular radiación de la orquídea Teagueia que describí en la publicación del año anterior del Día de Darwin. Las varias especies de Teagueia en esta montaña son completamente diferentes de las 16 especies existentes de Teagueia en el otro final de este nuevo corredor, en Cerro Candelaria, aunque Cerro Candelaria y Cerro Mayordomo tienen climas aparentemente idénticos y están a solo 13 km de distancia. Nadie sabe por qué son diferentes. 
IMG – La vista de cerca de la cima del Cerro Mayordomo, mirando al suroeste hacia el Volcán Tungurahua, el pico nevado a la izquierda y el Chimborazo, el pico nevado a la derecha. Chimborazo es el punto más alto de la tierra, más alto que el Everest en términos de distancia desde el centro de la Tierra. Fotografía: Lou Jost
Para esta última compra, el World Land Trust se arriesgó por nosotros. WLT todavía tiene que recaudar el dinero para realizar el pago final de esta compra en enero de 2017. ¡Ayúdelos si puede!
Lou Jost, Fundación EcoMinga
Traducción: Salomé Solórzano-Flores

Black-and-chestnut Eagle (Spizaetus isidori) again, in a different reserve

Black-and-chestnut Eagle (Spizaetus isidori) in our Cerro Candelaria Reserve. Photo: Fausto Recalde/EcoMinga.

Black-and-chestnut Eagle (Spizaetus isidori) in our Cerro Candelaria Reserve. Photo: Fausto Recalde/EcoMinga.

Lately Black-and-chestnut Eagles have been much on our minds, with a newly-found nest in our Rio Zunac Reserve. Now Fausto Recalde has managed to get some magnificent photos of an adult Black-and-chestnut Eagle in one of our other reserves, Cerro Candelaria. This adult is caring for a recently-fledged bird (see my video of this young bird here).
Photo: Fausto Recalde/EcoMinga.

Photo: Fausto Recalde/EcoMinga.